Compiled/edited by Norm Pyle, 5/4/95<firstname.lastname@example.org>
This revision reviewed by Glenn Tinseth Send feedback to: gtinseth (at) yahoo (dot) com
I've moved the list of contributors to the end, since the intended audience probably cares more about the information than who provided it. Don't misunderstand the importance of these contributors, though. Those listed have been absolutely essential in bringing this information together. Again, if you've contributed to this FAQ, don't see your name listed, and would like it listed, please contact me. No slight was intended, but with so much information from so many sources, it is easy to lose a name. Also, if your email address has changed, it would be nice to update that.
Although isomerized alpha acids are the biggest contributers, hops contain beta acids which also add bitterness to beer. The beta acids are similar to alpha acids both in structure and abundance. In contrast to alpha acids, it is not isomerized beta acids that add bitterness, it is the oxidation products of the beta acids, which are bitter and soluble, that make their presence felt. It should be noted that oxidized beta acids are not as bitter as isomerized alpha acids, and thus contribute much less to the final bitterness of the beer.
Both the alpha and beta acids are very susceptible to oxidation, especially at temperatures above freezing. Theoretical losses of alpha acids of up to 60% have been calculated for hops which are packaged and stored poorly. This is important because once alpha acids have been oxidized they can no longer be isomerized into iso-alpha acid, thus decreasing the hop's bittering potential. As stated above, oxidation components of beta acids contribute to bitterness, thus the bittering potential of oxidized hops may not decrease as much as is commonly thought. This does not, in any way, argue against storing hops well, since essential oils are dramatically and negatively altered by oxidation.
For these reasons, the "storageability" of each hop variety is sometimes provided, along with the alpha and beta acid levels, by the hop broker. This parameter is usually given as a percentage of the alpha acids present after 6 months at 20C. Some good storage hops (usually high alpha acid) lose only 15-20% of their alpha acids: Cluster and Galena are among the best. Most high quality aroma hops lose anywhere from 35-65% of their alpha acids unless anaerobic conditions and cold storage (< 0C) are provided. This is why it is imperative for brewers to buy the freshest hops available and store them in the coldest environment available, usually the freezer. It is also important to package the hops properly, which means removing as much oxygen as possible and containing them in an oxygen barrier material.
The essential oils are what give hops their unique aroma; each variety has its own distinct profile. The smell of hops freshly crushed in your hand is quite often different than that in a finished beer. This is due to the fact that the major components in hop oil, beta-pinene, myrcene, beta- caryophyllene, farnesene and alpha-humulene, are not usually found in beer. This is also the reason that measures of "total hop oil percentage" that some hop retailers provide are considered by some to be useless information. On the other hand, fermentation and oxidation products of these compounds, especially humulene epoxides and diepoxides are considered contributors to "hoppy" flavors and aroma. The exception here is with dry-hopping, where some of the hop oil components do survive into the beer intact.
Researchers have not been able to duplicate the complexities of hoppy character by adding pure chemicals in any proportion or combination. Consensus is that there is a synergistic blend of several compounds, some of which may have not yet been discovered.
Hop researchers, using capillary gas chromatography, have detected and identified more than 250 essential oil components in hops. Twenty two of these have been pinpointed as being good indicators of hoppiness potential. They are subdivided into 3 groups, humulene and caryophyllene oxidative products, floral/estery compounds, and citrus/piney compounds, as listed below:
Disadvantages: They float, so some contact with a still wort (as in dry hopping) is thought to be lost; this disadvantage is certainly arguable though, especially when it is considered that by using weighted hop bags, it is a non-issue. Since they are loose, exposure to air (oxygen) may be greater which could cause them to lose quality more quickly than the other forms of hops (note that this point is debatable). When stored in vacuum- sealed or CO2 or nitrogen purged Oxygen barrier bags or jars, this potential problem can be avoided. They are bulkier than other forms.
Disadvantages: Few hop varieties come in this form. Currently, any domestic varieties are first shipped to England where they are made into plugs and then shipped back to the U.S. This probably negates any potential freshness advantage they have over loose hops (for U.S. varieties). It is difficult, but not impossible to separate into increments smaller than 0.5 oz. The compression of the hops into this form causes the lupulin glands to burst, which causes a finite loss of the volatile hop aromatic compounds and could cause increased alpha acid oxidation.
Disadvantages: They sink and are powdered, so it is difficult to avoid them when siphoning. The extra processing of chopping and compressing negatively affects hop compounds.
Given the pros and cons listed, the choice of which form of hop to use in a certain application is up to the individual brewer and dependent upon the individual brewhouse. With some kettle arrangements (those using a hopback, for instance) loose hops can form a utilitarian filter bed. In others, the mass of loose hops can be a nuisance and soak up a large quantity of wort which is lost to the brewer. It should be noted that fresh, whole hops are available today from many sources, including mail-order nationwide (US) from companies such as Just Hops, Freshops, and HopTech, which may negate many of the advantages of processed hops.
AAU = AA * W
To help solve these problems, the International Bittering Unit (IBU) may be used. An IBU is defined as 1 mg/l of iso-alpha-acid in a solution. By estimating IBUs rather than HBUs, the brewer can get a more accurate (though admittedly still rough) approximation of the bitterness imparted into the beer by the hops. It is independent of batch size so that a 5 gallon batch with 29 IBU's has the same bitterness as a 50 barrel batch with 29 IBU's. The equations are commonly quoted from Jackie Rager's article in the "Zymurgy" Hops and Beer Special Edition published in 1990. Revised numbers and formulae have recently been presented by Glenn Tinseth and Mark Garetz, in separate works. Rager has been taken to task for not supplying enough background references, and not fully explaining how he got his numbers. In general, his utilization estimates are believed to be optimistic. Garetz has been accused of extrapolating scant laboratory information, and overgeneralizing because of it. His numbers have been labelled unrealistic on the pessimistic side. Tinseth has just presented a revised method and set of tables, and though they are thought to be quite accurate, they have not stood the test of time. The calculated numbers tend to fall in between Rager's and Garetz's. Note also that these are all estimates. Actual IBUs can be measured in a laboratory, but the average homebrewer has no access to such equipment. The Rager, Garetz, and Tinseth estimation methods follow.
Boiling Time (minutes) %Utilization ----------------------------------- 0 - 5 5.0 6 - 10 6.0 11 - 15 8.0 16 - 20 10.1 21 - 25 12.1 26 - 30 15.3 31 - 35 18.8 36 - 40 22.8 41 - 45 26.9This utilization can be reduced to a smooth function, as opposed to the table, which produces many discontinuous lines. The Rager table is represented by the following utilization equation:
%UTILIZATION = 18.11 + 13.86 * hyptan[(MINUTES - 31.32) / 18.27]According to Rager, if the gravity of the boil exceeds 1.050, there is a gravity adjustment (GA) to factor in:
GA = (BOIL_GRAVITY - 1.050) ---------------------- 0.2otherwise,
GA = 0
IBU = (GRAMS OF HOPS) * %UTILIZATION * %ALPHA * 1000 ------------------------------------------------ VOLUME(litres) * (1 + GA)
IBU = (OUNCES OF HOPS) * %UTILIZATION * %ALPHA * 7462 ------------------------------------------------- VOLUME(gallons) * (1 + GA)Jackie Rager's numbers have been used successfully by thousands of homebrewers and provide a consistent base with which to work. Note that the figures expressed as percent should be entered as decimal values in the formula (9% = 0.09). It is apparent that his constant 7462, derived from metric to US conversion, is actually closer to 7490. The GA factor could be questioned as well, as it is intuitively obvious that a gravity of 1.049 does not affect utilization exactly the same as a gravity of 1.000 (water). It is assumed (but not verified) that the utilization table is corrected for this assumption and/or the difference is small enough that it has little effect on the final bitterness of the beer.
The unfortunate part of Rager's article is that it is completely lacking in references, so assumptions come with it part and parcel. Note also that Rager's numbers are often used for pellet hops thrown loose in the boil. Al Korzonas suggests adding 10% more hops if used in a hop bag, and 10% more than that if loose hops or plugs are used.
Boiling Time (minutes) %Util (Avg Yeast) ---------------------------------------- 0 - 5 0 6 - 10 0 11 - 15 2 16 - 20 5 21 - 25 8 26 - 30 11 31 - 35 14 36 - 40 16 41 - 45 18 46 - 50 19 51 - 60 20 61 - 70 21 71 - 80 22 81 - 90 23According to Garetz, there are several adjustment factors, that he brings together in the formula with the term "combined adjustments" (CA):
CA = GF * HF * TFwhere GF is the Gravity Factor, HF is the Hopping Rate Factor, and TF is the Temperature Factor. To calculate it all, he starts with some he calls CF:
Concentration Factor: CF = Final Volume / Boil Volume,to account for concentrated boils of extract brews.
Next, calculate Boil Gravity (BG):
BG = (CF * (Starting Gravity - 1)) + 1Then calculate GF:
BG - 1.050 GF = ---------- + 1 .2HF is calculated as follows:
HF = ((CF * Desired IBUs)/260) + 1TF is based on elevation as follows:
TF = ((Elevation in feet) / 550) * 0.02) + 1These are all put into the following formula, along with the utilization from the table, and the IBUs are calculated. Note two things: 1) the utilization and alpha acids should be expressed as whole numbers (7% = 7), and 2) this process is iterative, since it contains a term (HF) based on your goal IBUs. You must guess at the final result, do the math, and rerun the process, each time adjusting the value downward. It takes a little practice, but can be done.
IBU = (%Utilization) * (%Alpha) * Hop weight(grams) * 0.1 --------------------------------------------------- Volume(liters) * CA
IBU = (%Utilization) * (%Alpha) * Hop weight(ounces) * 0.749 ------------------------------------------------------ Volume(Gallons) * CAGaretz goes to allow for a yeast factor (YF), pellet factor (PF), bag factor (BF), and filter factor (FF), and comes up with:
CA = GF * HF * TF * PF * BF * FFThis allows you to adjust the formula based on your own brewery and practices.
Decimal Alpha Acid Utilization vs. Boil Time and Wort Original Gravity Boil Original Gravity Time 1.030 1.040 1.050 1.060 1.070 1.080 1.090 1.100 1.110 1.120 1.130 (min) 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3 0.034 0.031 0.029 0.026 0.024 0.022 0.020 0.018 0.017 0.015 0.014 6 0.065 0.059 0.054 0.049 0.045 0.041 0.038 0.035 0.032 0.029 0.026 9 0.092 0.084 0.077 0.070 0.064 0.059 0.054 0.049 0.045 0.041 0.037 12 0.116 0.106 0.097 0.088 0.081 0.074 0.068 0.062 0.056 0.052 0.047 15 0.137 0.125 0.114 0.105 0.096 0.087 0.080 0.073 0.067 0.061 0.056 18 0.156 0.142 0.130 0.119 0.109 0.099 0.091 0.083 0.076 0.069 0.063 21 0.173 0.158 0.144 0.132 0.120 0.110 0.101 0.092 0.084 0.077 0.070 24 0.187 0.171 0.157 0.143 0.131 0.120 0.109 0.100 0.091 0.083 0.076 27 0.201 0.183 0.168 0.153 0.140 0.128 0.117 0.107 0.098 0.089 0.082 30 0.212 0.194 0.177 0.162 0.148 0.135 0.124 0.113 0.103 0.094 0.086 33 0.223 0.203 0.186 0.170 0.155 0.142 0.130 0.119 0.108 0.099 0.091 36 0.232 0.212 0.194 0.177 0.162 0.148 0.135 0.124 0.113 0.103 0.094 39 0.240 0.219 0.200 0.183 0.167 0.153 0.140 0.128 0.117 0.107 0.098 42 0.247 0.226 0.206 0.189 0.172 0.158 0.144 0.132 0.120 0.110 0.101 45 0.253 0.232 0.212 0.194 0.177 0.162 0.148 0.135 0.123 0.113 0.103 48 0.259 0.237 0.216 0.198 0.181 0.165 0.151 0.138 0.126 0.115 0.105 51 0.264 0.241 0.221 0.202 0.184 0.169 0.154 0.141 0.129 0.118 0.108 54 0.269 0.246 0.224 0.205 0.188 0.171 0.157 0.143 0.131 0.120 0.109 57 0.273 0.249 0.228 0.208 0.190 0.174 0.159 0.145 0.133 0.121 0.111 60 0.276 0.252 0.231 0.211 0.193 0.176 0.161 0.147 0.135 0.123 0.112 70 0.285 0.261 0.238 0.218 0.199 0.182 0.166 0.152 0.139 0.127 0.116 80 0.291 0.266 0.243 0.222 0.203 0.186 0.170 0.155 0.142 0.130 0.119 90 0.295 0.270 0.247 0.226 0.206 0.188 0.172 0.157 0.144 0.132 0.120 120 0.301 0.275 0.252 0.230 0.210 0.192 0.176 0.161 0.147 0.134 0.123To calculate IBUs, the formula is simple:
IBUs = decimal alpha acid utilization * mg/l of added alpha acidsFor those who want to make adjustments based on their own brewery, he offers the following:
mg/l of added alpha acids = decimal AA rating * grams hops * 1000 ------------------------------------- liters of wort
mg/l of added alpha acids = decimal AA rating * ozs hops * 7490 ------------------------------------- gallons of wortThe decimal alpha acid utilization is calculated using Tinseth's two empirical factors: the Bigness factor and the Boil Time factor.
Decimal Alpha Acid Utilization = Bigness Factor * Boil Time FactorThe Bigness Factor accounts for reduced utilization due to higher wort gravities.
Bigness factor = 1.65 * 0.000125^(wort gravity - 1)The Boil Time Factor gives the varying utilization based on boil time:
Boil Time factor = 1 - e^(-0.04 * time in mins) -------------------------- 4.15Some comments from Tinseth:
"The numbers 1.65 and 0.000125 are empirically derived to fit my data. The number 0.04 controls the shape of the util vs. time curve. The factor 4.15 controls the max util value--make it smaller if your util is higher than mine.
I'd suggest fiddling with 4.15 if necessary to match your system, only play with the other three if you like to muck around. I make no guarantees if you do.
You might notice that the shape of the util curves is very similar to that of Randy Mosher's. He and I seem to have independently arrived at the same conclusion.
The really cool thing about these new equations is that they are easily customizable. I believe the basic form is correct--by playing with the different factors, different brewers should be able to make them fit their breweries perfectly. The root of the equations is the basic first order chemical reaction, i.e. the AA isomerization seems be first order (or pseudo-first order)."
One question that appears on occasion is whether you lose bitterness if you boil the hops for too long, e.g. longer than two hours. According to Glenn Tinseth, multiple studies have shown that alpha acid utilization always increases with boil time, even out to 3 hours of boiling. The reason the tables quit around 60 minutes of boiling, is that little utilization is gained beyond that. In fact, after about 45 minutes the curve becomes quite flat. In other words, beyond that the utilization increase is small compared to the added time involved. It is speculated that commercial brewers found that beyond 45-60 minutes or so, the benefit of the added utilization was more than offset by the cost of the energy to continue the boil as well as the cost of the added time in the process.
A final note about bitterness: IBUs are not the final word when it comes to the perceived bitterness of beer. Sulfates, dark grains, tannins, and other compounds found in beer contribute to the bitterness sensation. For this reason, comparison of bitterness between styles (and sometimes even different beers within a style) is difficult.
Wort OG IBU ------- --- 1.010 4 1.020 8 1.030 12 1.040 16 1.050 24 1.060 32 1.070 40 1.080 48 1.090 56 1.100 64
Hops grow vertically as one or more vines that spiral up a twine or other support. Depending on latitude, location, and variety, they sprout from March or April and grow through the summer and early fall. A single plant can easily grow 40 feet tall when it is mature but growth in the first year is usually much less. In most instances by the second or third year the plants will exhibit full growth. Height is very closely linked to the amount of sunshine the plant gets.
Hops grow best in full sun and you should pick a spot with the best possible southern exposure. Hops grow best in loose, well drained soil. Blended peat moss and sand make a good growing environment. In cases of poor soil drainage, it can be helpful to create a mound of soil a foot or so tall which will aid drainage.
Hops need lots of water. As they grow be sure to give them a very good soaking at least once a week. There are reports that once-a-day waterings (up to 6.5 gallons per mound) give greater growth and yield. Mulch in the summer helps with weed control and also holds water. Hops also have big appetites; composted cow manure is an excellent well-balanced fertilizer for them.
Once a bed has been prepared the rhizomes are planted about 4 inches below the soil surface with any obvious buds coming from the rhizome oriented to point upward.
After several inches the new vines can be thinned so that just the most healthy and vigorous three vines are left to continue growing. This will be an ongoing process as new shoots may show up later, but the initial thinning is thought to be important by some home hop growers. It's been reported that the young shoots that are culled may be steamed and eaten like asparagus. On the other hand, some growers espouse cutting the new shoots at all, allowing all vines to grow to full height.
As the vines grow over a foot tall they should be trained to grow up a twine. This can be done by twisting the vine around the line. This may have to be repeated for a few days before the vine gets the idea. Hops will have a natural tendency to wrap clockwise looking down.
The most common hops trellis consists of strings running from the roof of a building down to stakes driven into the soil near the plants. Another option, often used by commercial growers, consists of a large central pole, with strings running from the top of the pole down to the foot of each plant, similar to the spokes on a wheel. Expect the string or twine to hold a lot of weight as the vines grow tall. A 25+ foot plant may weigh 20+ pounds.
Hop blossoms start out looking like large sand burrs, and then take on a characteristic cone shape as they grow in size. The size of a fully developed cone depends on the variety, varying from 1 to 2 inches long by 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter.
The hops are fully mature and ready for picking when two changes take place. First, immature hops have a damp, soft feel and when squeezed slightly tend to stay compressed. Mature hops feel more like paper, spring back when squeezed, and feel noticeably lighter. The second key test is to pick an average example hop and cut it lengthwise down the center with a knife. When ready to pick, the yellow powder (the lupulin sacs containing the essential oils and bitter compounds) will be a dark shade of yellow, like the stripes on a highway, and it will be pungent. If a light shade of yellow then its likely the hops are immature.
When ready to pick it is best to snip the stems of the cones with scissors or a knife to avoid jarring the hops and knocking lupulin powder out or worse, pulling the center of the cone out with the stem, causing a great loss of lupulin. Touching hops plants can cause skin irritation in some people; gloves and long sleeves can help in this matter.
Just-picked hops are roughly 80 percent water; if left alone they spoil rapidly. For proper storage most of the water is removed by drying. A good drying method is to lie the hops on a card or screen in an attic. Just a few hours during the heat of summer or a few hours more in cooler weather is enough to dry the hops. Use a before and after weighing (and trial and error) to try to achieve about 7-10 percent residual moisture after drying.
After drying, hops keep best at low temperatures and away from oxygen. A kitchen freezer easily takes care of temperature but to get the hops away from oxygen is difficult. Tightly packing hops in canning jars will minimize the trapped air but be careful not to use too much force and break the all important lupulin sacs since this accelerates oxidation. Purging the canning jar of oxygen by blowing in carbon dioxide from a kegging system will also help prolong freshness.
It's common to get 4 or 5 harvests per year by picking the biggest, most mature hops every 2 weeks or so as the flowers ripen. Patience and judgement are important since cones left on the vine too long turn brown and begin to oxidize and spoil, while immature hops have little lupulin to give.
At the end of the growing season when the leaves have fallen or turned brown, cut the vines at the surface of the soil and if possible remove the twine. After cutting back the vines a layer of 3 or 4 inches of mulch and composted manure can be put over the exposed vines for insulation and nutrition during the winter.
Japanese beetles are the number one nuisance in many areas. A common remedy is to position a "Bag a Bug" type beetle trap about 30 feet directly up wind from the hop vines. There is some concern that the "Bag a Bug" traps may actually attract more beetles than they catch, but that probably depends on the situation. Certain plants such as rose bushes may also attract the beetles, so it's best to keep those plants away from your hops. Also, the beetles' larvae live in the ground, and in cases of extreme Japanese Beetle infestation the surrounding lawn may need to be treated accordingly. A number of other pests, such as aphids, can harm hops, and can be treated with any number of pesticides. Since you will be consuming these hops, you should use low toxicity natural pesticides, such as 1% Rotenone dust, for direct pest control on the plants. As with any consumable, you should ensure that any pesticide is well washed before using the hops.
Ladybugs are the best, most natural way to get rid of aphids and a lot of other bugs. However, it can be difficult to keep them on your hop plants once you run out of food for them. A good idea is to plant some cilantro/coriander between your hop hills. Ladybugs are attracted to this plant and it will keep their attention between feedings of aphids. You can even harvest the cilantro (the leaves) for cooking and use the coriander (the seeds) in Witbier.
One other hazard is animals. A short fence of rabbit wire will keep cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. at bay, but won't do much against deer.
Rhizomes are available from an increasing number of sources. American Brewmaster in Raleigh, NC, and Freshops in Philomath, OR, are all well-known suppliers. Cost is usually a few dollars each. They should be kept in plastic bags, moist and cold in your refrigerator until they are planted.
Additional information about hop growing can be found in "Homegrown Hops" by David R. Beach. Also, the 1990 Zymurgy Hops and Beer Special Issue is devoted to hops and contains an article about growing hops by Pierre Rajotte. The AHA also has additional hops-oriented publications.
There are several ways to dry hop, if one considers the variations of making hop teas, etc. The best time to dry hop is after primary fermentation has slowed and little CO2 is being driven off the wort. Dry hopping earlier than this point is inefficient as the volatile hop oils are scrubbed away by the exiting CO2. Also, dry hopping early in the fermentation phase may result in hops on the bottom of the fermenter being covered with yeast, which results in inefficient extraction of aroma. Another consideration of timing dry hopping is with infection risk. Hops in contact with boiling wort are effectively sanitized. Addition of dry hops after primary fermentation allows them to contact a wort/beer with some alcohol and less sugar, which prevents infections from getting a foothold.
The proper length of time for dry hopping is dependent on the temperature. At ale temperatures, 7-14 days of contact time is widely used. At lager temperatures, although little data is available as few lagers are dry hopped, it seems obvious that longer contact times, on the order of 14-21 days, are called for. It is common to use 0.5 - 2.0 oz. or more in a 5 gallon batch, but as always it is up to the individual's preferences and the hop variety. An ounce or more of East Kent Goldings in the secondary will add a nice aroma, but probably not overpowering to most brewers. A similar amount of Cascades, on the other hand, are not for the faint of heart! The rare commercial brewer that dry hops generally leaves the hops on the beer for a longer time than the average, impatient homebrewer. This is undoubtedly to extract more aroma from this relatively expensive ingredient.
EKGs, Fuggles, Northern Brewer, Saaz, Cascade, all Hallertauer variants, and many other hops have been used successfully. It should be noted that the aroma of the beer greatly influences the profile, and that the "correct" aroma hop should be used to match the style (i.e. English hops for English ales). American brewers have traditionally used hops from all over the globe so European hops, for example, can be used without fear of a brewing faux pas. Note also that traditionally, German beers are not dry-hopped, but that American versions of German styles are sometimes dry hopped.
The first and foremost way to dry hop is to simply put the hops into the fermenter. The most common worry with this method is about infecting a beer which is nearly ready to bottle/keg. Hops are natural preservatives, and infections from this method are very rare. Of course, an infection source in a homebrewery is impossible to prove, but this risk is certainly minimal. If loose hops or plugs are used, they will float, and some brewers use a sanitized hop bag and marbles to sink the hops for maximum contact. If pellets are used they will sink, but may be difficult to avoid when bottling or kegging. Also, the pellet hops can be easily covered by yeast falling out of suspension, so they should be added after virtually all fermentation activity has ceased, and a good amount of the yeast has fallen. Finally, it is worth mentioning that, for many, pellets are not well regarded for dry hopping because the pelletization process is known to be very rough on the volatile aromatic compounds which the brewer is attempting to capture. Others swear by them, claiming the pre-burst lupulin glands provide more aroma to the beer.
Another method used to dry hop is to steep the hops in a white alcohol (grain, vodka, etc.) and sometimes water solution for hours or days, then pour this solution into the fermenter. This is a common practice among those who want to protect against the remote possibility of infection with normal dry hopping. It should be noted that as the temperature of the alcohol/water/hops mixture is raised, the effect approaches that of finish hopping, as the most volatile hop oils are driven off.
Adding hop oil, a product recently introduced to the homebrewing market, is another way of "dry-hopping". It should be done after primary fermentation has slowed for many of the same reasons.
These dry hopping methods, and others, will produce different results, mainly because the desired compounds are so volatile. The variety of reactions taking place during processing and fermentation will affect the results. Some have noted grassy and otherwise unpleasant aromas from the practice of dry hopping, so it is not for all beers, nor for all people. The "best" method is the one which gives the desired result to the individual homebrewer.
A final note about dry-hopping: the volatile hop compounds will react quickly with oxygen. For this reason, extra measures should be taken to avoid mixing with air during bottling or kegging, in order to retain the hop aroma for extended periods of time. These extra measures may include purging the bottling vessel and keg with CO2, very quiet siphoning, oxygen scavenging caps, and possibly delayed capping after bottling. This method allows any CO2 coming out of solution during the bottling process to push the oxygen out of the bottle before the caps are secured. This method is used by many homebrewers but, as always, the results are inconclusive. The simplest method is to use the oxygen scavenging caps, which requires no extra effort and little extra cost. For further reference, the Summer 1993 "Zymurgy" contains an article by Mark Garetz on this subject.
Name: CASCADE Grown: US Profile: strong spicy, floral, citrus (especially grapefruit) aroma Typical use: bittering, finishing, dry hopping for American style ales Example: Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Anchor Liberty Ale & Old Foghorn AA Range: 4.5 - 8% Substitute: Centennial Name: CHALLENGER Grown: UK (Northern Brewer heritage) Profile: spicy aroma, fruity flavor Typical use: dual purpose, aroma and bittering, blends well with other hops Example: ??? AA Range: 6.5 - 8.5% Substitute: ??? Name: CRYSTAL (CFJ-HALLERTAU) Grown: US Profile: mild, pleasant, slightly spicy Typical use: aroma/finishing/flavoring Example: ??? AA Range: 2 - 5% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Mount Hood, Liberty. Name: EAST KENT GOLDINGS Grown: UK Profile: spicy/floral, earthy, rounded, very mild aroma; spicy (candy-like?) flavor Typical use: bittering, finishing, dry hopping for British ales Example: Samuel Smith's Pale Ale, Fuller's ESB AA Range: 4.5 - 7% Substitute: BC Goldings, Target Name: ULTRA (was EXPERIMENTAL 21484) Grown: US Profile: fine aroma hop Typical use: finishing for German style lagers Example: None AA Range: 3 - 6% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh Name: FUGGLES Grown: UK, US, and other areas Profile: mild, soft, grassy, floral aroma Typical use: finishing / dry hopping for all ales, dark lagers Example: Samuel Smith's Pale Ale, Old Peculier, Thomas Hardy's Ale AA Range: 3.5 - 5.5% Substitute: East Kent Goldings, Willamette Name: HALLERTAUER HERSBRUCKER Grown: Germany Profile: pleasant, spicy/mild, noble, earthy aroma Typical use: finishing for German style lagers Example: Wheathook Wheaten Ale AA Range: 2.5 - 5% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal, NZ Hallertau Aroma Name: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH Grown: Germany Profile: pleasant, spicy, noble, mild herbal aroma Typical use: finishing for German style lagers Example: Sam Adams Boston Lager, Sam Adams Boston Lightship AA Range: 3 - 5% Substitute: Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal, NZ Hallertau Aroma Name: LIBERTY Grown: US Profile: fine, very mild aroma Typical use: finishing for German style lagers Example: Pete's Wicked Lager AA Range: 2.5 - 5% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Mt. Hood, Crystal Name: LUBLIN Grown: Poland Profile: Reported to be a substitute for noble varieties, in fact is said to be Saaz grown in Poland. Typical use: aroma/finishing Example: ??? AA Range: 2 - 4% Substitute: Saaz, Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Tettnang, Mount Hood, Liberty, Crystal. Name: MT. HOOD Grown: US Profile: mild, clean aroma Typical use: finishing for German style lagers Example: Anderson Valley High Rollers Wheat Beer, Portland Ale AA Range: 3.5 - 8% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Liberty, Tettnang Name: NZ HALLERTAU AROMA (an organic version also exists) Grown: New Zealand Profile: Said to be a replica of German Hallertauer Mittelfrueh Typical use: fine aroma hopping Example: Coors, Coors Light AA Range: 6 - 8% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker, Tettnang, Crystal Name: PROGRESS Grown: UK (Whitbred Goldings heritage) Profile: similar to Fuggles, but slightly sweeter Typical use: bittering and aroma for British ales Example: ??? AA Range: 5.0 - 7.5% Substitute: Fuggles Name: SAAZ Grown: Czechoslovakia Profile: delicate, mild, floral aroma Typical use: finishing for Bohemian style lagers Example: Pilsener Urquell AA Range: 2 - 5% Substitute: Tettnang (many would claim there is NO substitute) Name: SPALT Grown: Germany/US Profile: mild, pleasant, slightly spicy Typical use: aroma/finishing/flavoring, some bittering Example: Common in Dusseldorf Altbiers AA Range: 3 - 6% Substitute: Saaz, Tettnang Name: STRISSELSPALT Grown: France -- Alsace area Profile: medium intensity, pleasant, similar to Hersbrucker Typical use: aroma/finishing Example: ??? AA Range: 3 - 5% Substitute: Hersbrucker, German Spalt Name: STYRIAN GOLDINGS Grown: Yugoslavia (seedless Fuggles grown in Yugoslavia), also grown in US Profile: similar to Fuggles Typical use: bittering/finishing/dry hopping for a wide variety of beers, popular in Europe, especially UK Example: Ind Coope's Burton Ale, Timothy Taylor's Landlord AA Range: 4.5 - 7 Substitute: Fuggles, Willamette Name: TETTNANG Grown: Germany, US Profile: fine, spicy aroma Typical use: finishing for German style beers Example: Gulpener Pilsener, Sam Adams Octoberfest, Anderson Valley ESB AA Range: 3 - 6% Substitute: Saaz, Spalt Name: WILLAMETTE Grown: US Profile: mild, spicy, grassy, floral aroma Typical use: finishing and dry hopping for American / British ales Example: Sierra Nevada Porter, Ballard Bitter, Anderson Valley Boont Amber AA Range: 4 - 7% Substitute: Fuggles
Name: BREWER'S GOLD Grown: UK, US Profile: poor aroma; sharp bittering hop Typical use: bittering for ales Example: Pete's Wicked Ale AA Range: 8 - 9% Substitute: Bullion Name: BULLION Grown: UK (maybe discontinued), US Profile: poor aroma; sharp bittering and blackcurrant flavor when used in the boil Typical use: bittering hop for British ales, perhaps some finishing Example: ??? (Guinness Extra Stout and SSWW - not confirmed) AA Range: 8 - 11% Substitute: Brewer's Gold, Pacific Gem Name: CENTENNIAL Grown: US Profile: spicy, floral, citrus aroma; clean bittering hop (Super Cascade?) Typical use: general purpose bittering, aroma, some dry hopping Example: Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Bigfoot Ale AA Range: 9 - 11.5% Substitute: Cascade Name: CHINOOK Grown: US Profile: heavy spicy aroma; strong versatile bittering hop Typical use: bittering Example: Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Stout AA Range: 12 - 14% Substitute: Galena, Eroica, Nugget, Bullion Name: CLUSTER Grown: US, Australia Profile: poor, sharp aroma; sharp bittering hop Typical use: general purpose bittering (Aussie version used as finishing hop) Example: Winterhook Christmas Ale AA Range: 5.5 - 8.5% Substitute: Galena, Cascade, Eroica Name: EROICA Grown: US Profile: clean bittering hop Typical use: general purpose bittering Example: Ballard Bitter, Blackhook Porter, Anderson Valley Boont Amber AA Range: 12 - 14% Substitute: Northern Brewer, Galena Name: GALENA Grown: US Profile: strong, clean bittering hop Typical use: general purpose bittering Example: Catamount Porter, Devil's Mountain Railroad Ale AA Range: 12 - 14% Substitute: Northern Brewer, Eroica, Cluster Name: NORTHERN BREWER Grown: UK, US, Germany (called Hallertauer NB), and other areas (growing region affects profile greatly) Profile: fine, fragrant aroma; dry, clean bittering hop Typical use: bittering and finishing for a wide variety of beers Example: Old Peculier(bittering), Anchor Liberty(bittering), Anchor Steam(bittering, flavoring, aroma) AA Range: 7 - 10% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, Hallertauer Hersbrucker Name: NUGGET Grown: US Profile: heavy, spicy, herbal aroma; strong bittering hop Typical use: strong bittering, some aroma uses Example: Sierra Nevada Porter & Bigfoot Ale, Anderson Valley ESB AA Range: 12 - 14% Substitute: Chinook Name: PERLE Grown: Germany, US Profile: pleasant aroma; slightly spicy, almost minty bittering hop Typical use: general purpose bittering for all lagers except pilsener Example: Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Summerfest, and Pale Bock AA Range: 7 - 9.5% Substitute: Hallertauer Mittelfrueh, NZ Hallertau Aroma Name: PRIDE OF RINGWOOD Grown: Australia Profile: citric aroma; clean bittering hop Typical use: general purpose bittering Example: Foster's Lager, Victoria Bitter, Coopers Sparkling Ale AA Range: 9 - 11% Substitute: ???
Name: GREEN BULLET Grown: New Zealand Profile: ??? Typical use: Bittering and aroma in lagers, even pilseners Example: ??? AA Range: 8 - 12% Substitute: Styrian Goldings Name: NORTHDOWN Grown: Ireland Profile: good flavor and aroma, blends well with other UK types Typical use: all purpose ale hop Example: Guinness AA Range: 7.2 - 9% Substitute: Target, Northern Brewer Name: PACIFIC GEM Grown: New Zealand Profile: delicate black currant/floral nose Typical use: Strong Bittering, but also some aroma applications Example: ??? AA Range: 14%+ Substitute: Bullion? Name: SOUTHERN CROSS Grown: New Zealand Profile: ??? Typical use: Strong Bittering and fine aroma qualities Example: ??? AA Range: 11-12% Substitute: ??? Name: STICKLEBRACT Grown: New Zealand Profile: Said to be comparable to European Northern Brewer Typical use: Strong Bittering as well as aroma uses Example: ??? AA Range: 11 - 13% Substitute: Northern Brewer Name: SUPER ALPHA Grown: New Zealand Profile: ??? Typical use: bittering and aroma applications Example: Steinlager, Hahn Premium AA Range: 10 - 13% Substitute: ??? Name: TARGET Grown: UK Profile: accounts for 40% of UK hop production Typical use: mostly used for bittering, some aroma potential Example: Young's Special London Ale AA Range: 10.5 - 12.5% Substitute: Northdown, Progress
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